Gustrisehat’sWeblog

Desember 8, 2008

Omar Al Moktar : The Lion of The Desert

Filed under: Kisah-kisah — Gustri @ 10:20 am
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Dikutip dari swaramuslim.com

Lelaki renta itu melangkah menuju tiang gantungan. Kedua tangannya terbelenggu
namun matanya masih tetap berbinar. Raut mukanya tak menampakkan rasa
takut sedikit pun. Ia begitu gagah walaupun maut tengah merambat
mendekatinya.

Suasana sendu justru menyergap orang-orang di
sekelilingnya. Mereka menatap lelaki berusia 80 tahun itu, dengan wajah
muram. Air mata tak dapat mereka bendung pula. Bahkan beberapa saat
kemudian, jerit tangis bersahutan.

Tatkala
mereka melihat lingkaran tali tiang gantungan, menjerat leher pahlawan
mereka, Omar Al-Mokhtar. Singa Padang Pasir itu, berpulang ke
Rahmatullah, pada 16 September 1931 di Kota Solouq. Usai sudah
perjuangannya melawan penjajahan Italia.

Omar Al-Mokhtar memang dipandang sebagai simbol perlawanan terhadap penjajahan Italia bagi rakyat Libya.
Sejak Italia mulai menancapkan cengkeramannya di negeri tersebut pada
Oktober 1911. Ia telah menjadi pionir untuk menyalakan bara perjuangan
rakyat Libya

Syahid di Tiang Gantungan
Gelora
perjuangannya juga merambat kepada rakyat Libya lainnya, dan melahirkan
para mujahid seperti Ramadan As-Swaihli, Mohammad Farhat Az-Zawi,
Al-Fadeel Bo-Omar, Solaiman Al-Barouni dan Silima An-Nailiah.

Usaha Italia menguasai Libya, dilakukan dengan menyerang dan menguasai kota-kota pantai seperti Tripoli, Benghazi,
Misrata dan Derna secara beruntun. Meski demikian, Omar kerap menjadi
batu sandungan mereka. Ia mampu membangkitkan semangat perjuangan
rakyat Libya.

Perlawanan mereka telah menciptakan sejumlah pertempuran hebat.
Misalnya pertempuran yang terjadi di Al-Hani dekat Tripoli pada 23
Oktober 1911, Ar-Rmaila dekat Misrata, Al-Fwaihat dekat Benghazi pada
Maret 1912 dan Wadi Ash-Shwaer dekat Derna.

Bahkan tak jarang perjuangan rakyat Libya
menuai hasil gemilang. Kala itu, mereka terlibat dalam pertempuran
besar di Al-Gherthabiya, dekat Sirt pada April 1915. Italia kehilangan
ribuan serdadu. Pertempuran semacam ini sering terjadi, membuat Italia
harus melalui tahun demi tahun untuk menguasai negeri ini.

Meski pada akhirnya, wilayah-wilayah yang dipertahankan oleh para
mujahidin jatuh pula ke tangan penjajah. Jatuhnya wilayah demi wilayah
membuat para pejuang meninggalkan rumahnya dan menuju ke pegunungan.
Mereka tak berdiam diri, namun merencanakan beragam serangan lanjutan.

Pada 1922 Omar mengorganisir para mujahidin dan mengobarkan kembali
perlawanan terhadap pendudukan Italia atas negerinya. Ia mengumpulkan
kembali mujahidin di The Green Mountain (Aj-Jabal Al-Akdar), bagian
Tenggara Libya. Hal itu terjadi setelah Perang Dunia I ketika Italia berpikir telah mampu meredam sepenuhnya perlawanan rakyat Libya.

Perlawanan yang kembali mencuat membuat otoritas Italia merasakan
bahaya yang mengancam. Mereka tak mau membiarkan perlawanan semakin
merajalela. Lalu pemerintah pusat Italia Badolio yang terkenal haus
darah untuk meredam bara perlawanan tersebut.

Ia tak hanya
mendapatkan tugas memimpin pertempuran untuk menumpas Omar Al-Mokhtar
dan pasukannya. Bahkan ia pun diizinkan untuk membunuh rakyat jelata
yang hidup tenang baik di desa maupun pegunungan hanya karena di anggap
membantu para mujahidin.

Beberapa saat kemudian, sang
diktator, Musolini, juga mengirimkan komandan yang berperilaku seperti
Badolio. Ia mengemban tugas yang sama untuk mengenyahkan nyawa-nyawa
orang yang tak berdosa dan tak lupa menumpas gerakan mujahidin.

Dan Musolini berpikir bahwa untuk menyelesaikan masalah Libya
secara tuntas adalah Rodolfo Grasiani. Bahkan kepada kabinetnya
Musolini menyatakan kedatangan Grasiani kelak membuat suasana di Libya dapat terkontrol sepenuhnya.

Kala itu, Grasiani setuju pergi ke Libya dengan catatan tak ada aturan yang dapat membelenggunya dalam melakukan berbagai tindakan di Libya. Bahkan peraturan internasional sekalipun. Sebelum ditugaskan ke Libya, ia pergi ke Morj, Switzerland untuk merencanakan serangan terhadap Libya.

Rancangan Grasiani tentu saja disetujui sepenunya oleh Musolini.
Pasalnya, ia berpegang pada prinsip ”jika tak bersamaku maka kalian
adalah lawanku”. Dengan demikian untuk menguasai Libya segala cara harus dihalalkan tak peduli akan mengorbankan banyak jiwa yang tak berdosa.

Rencana pertama Grasiani adalah mengisolir Libya
serta mencegah adanya kontak baik langsung maupun tak langsung dengan
mujahidin dan negara tetangganya yang memasok senjata dan informasi
kepada para pejuang Libya.
Ia membangun kawat berduri sepanjang 300 km, tinggi 2 meter dan lebar 3
meter dari pelabuhan Bardiyat Slaiman Libya Utara sampai Al-Jagboub
Libya Tenggara.

Rencana lainnya adalah membangun kamp konsentrasi di mana ribuan warga Libya
harus hidup dalam pengawasan angkatan perang Italia. Ia membangun kamp
konsentrasi di Al-Aghaila, Al-Maghroun, Solouq, dan Al-Abiyar.

Pada akhir November 1929 semua warga Libya yang hidup di tenda di
Al-Jabal Al-Akdar, Mortaf-Aat Al-Thahir dari Beneena Utara sampai
Ash-Shlaithemiya Selatan, dari Tawkera ke bagian selatan padang pasir
Balt Abdel-Hafeeth, digiring untuk hidup di kamp-kamp konsentrasi.

Kehidupan rakyat Libya di kamp sangat mengerikan. Bahkan ribuan warga Libya mati kelaparan. Tak jarang pula mereka mati karena ditembak atau digantung sebab diyakini membantu perjuangan para mujahidin.

Pada 1933, Ketua Departemen Kesehatan Angkatan Darat Italia, Dr Todesky
menuliskan dalam bukunya bertajuk Cerinaica Today. Dalam bukunya itu ia
menyebutkan bahwa dari Mei sampai September 1930, lebih dari 80 ribu
warga Libya dipaksa meninggalkan tanah kelahirannya dan hidup di kamp konsentrasi.

Iring-iringan warga Libya
yang berjumlah 300 orang sekali jalan, mendapat kawalah ketat dari
militer Italia. Todesky melanjutkan bahwa pada akhir 1930 semua warga Libya yang hidup di tenda-tenda dipaksa untuk hidup di kamp konsentrasi. Sebanyak 55 persen dari 80 ribu warga Libya meninggal di kamp konsentrasi tersebut.

Seorang sejarawan Libya, Mahmoud Ali At-Taeb menyatakan bahwa pada
November 1930 paling tidak terdapat 17 pemakaman dalam sehari terjadi
di kamp konsetrasi akibat kelaparan, penyakit, dan depresi.

Di
luar kamp konsentrasi, mujahidin yang bertahan di daerah pegunungan
terus berjuang melawan penjajahan Italia. Namun pada 1931 mujahidin
kehabisan bahan pangan dan amunisi. Pimpinan mujahidin, Omar
Al-Mokhtar, sakit-sakitan dan banyak mujadihin memintanya untuk
berhenti dan meninggalkan negeri tersebut. Namun ia menolak tawaran
tersebut dan tetap mengobarkan perjuangan.

Atas kegigihannya
melawan penjajahan Italia tak heran jika ia dijuluki sebagai ‘Singa
Padang Pasir’. Meski akhirnya, usia senja tak mampu membuatnya bertahan
untuk memanggul senjata. Ia ditangkap dan dijatuhi hukuman gantung.
Eksekusi tetap dilakukan tanpa mempertimbangkan kerentaan Omar
Al-Mokhtar dan hukum internasional.

Semakin redupnya bara perlawanan, membuat Italia akhirnya dapat menguasai Libya setelah melakukan pertempuran selama 20 tahun. Meski Italia hanya mampu berkuasa di sana hingga 1943 akibat kekalahannya di Perang Dunia II. Libya kemudian berada di bawah kekuasaan pasukan sekutu hingga 24 Desember 1951. ferry kisihandi/berbagai sumber (RioL)


Omar Al-Mokhtar


On 16 September 1931 the Italians hanged the Libyan fighter [Mojahid] Omar Al-Mokhtar. Omar al-Mokhtar is considered the great symbol for the Libyan
resistance (Jihad) against the Italian occupation. In 1922 he
reorganized the Mojahideen and re-ignited the resistance against Italy after World War I
when
the Italians thought that they succeeded in silencing the Libyan
resistance. Omar Al-Mokhtar, was ill couple of times and many of his
comrades asked him to retire and leave the country, he was 80 years
old. But he refused and kept fighting and he deserved a name given to
him as “The Lion of the Desert.” On 16 September, 1931 the Italians
hanged Omar Al-Mokhtar in the city of Solouq
and they forced the Libyans to watch their hero been hanged. No
consideration to Omar Al-Mokhtar’s old age, no consideration to
international law and no consideration to world war treaties

The Italian Occupation and the Libyan Resistance


In October 1911 the Italian fleet invaded Libya
and the Libyans resisted the invaders with whatever little weapons they
could get. The Italians first concentrated their attack on the coast
cities, Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata and Derna. Major battles took place in Al-Hani near Tripoli (October 23, 1911) , Ar-Rmaila near Misrata, Al-Fwaihat near Benghazi
(March 1912) and Wadi Ash-Shwaer near Derna. Other battles took place
on the coast and in other cities, villages, mountains and desert. One
of the major battles was Al-Gherthabiya near Sirt (April 1915) where
the Italians lost thousands of their soldiers. Although the Italians
succeeded in controling most of Libya
after years of resistance and struggle (Jihad), they could not control
the whole country because the Libyan fighters (Mojahideen) left their
homes and headed for the mountains where they planned their attacks
against the Italian armies. Some of the major Libyan fighters
(Mojahideen) against the Italians were Omar Al-Moktar [see photo on the
right] , Ramadan As-Swaihli, Mohammad Farhat Az-Zawi, Al-Fadeel
Bo-Omar, Solaiman Al-Barouni and Silima An-Nailiah to name a few. Omar
Al-Moktar is considered the great symbol for the Libyan resistance
(Jihad) against the Italian occupation. He reorganized the Mojahideen
in The Green Mountain (Aj-Jabal Al-Akdar) North East Libya and he
re-ignited the resistance against Italy after World War I when the Italians thought that they succeeded in silencing the Libyan resistance.

Feeling that they may lose Libya
to the Mojahideen, the Italian authorities sent one of their bloodiest
high ranking officers Badolio who used the most inhuman measures to end
the resistance. He did not just lead the fight against Omar Al-Moktar
and his comrades, but he also punished even those who were living
peacefully in the cities and villages accusing them of helping the
Mojahideen. Badolio was not the only one whome the Italian government
thought able to end the Libyan resistance through using the most
inhumane and blodiest measures. Mosoliny, the infamous Italian
dictator, sent another high ranking officer to kill thousands and
thousands of inocent Libyans, young and old. fighters and non-fighters.
Mosolini thought that the solution to the Libyan problem was Rodolfo
Grasiani and by sending him to lead the fight against the Libyans he
was telling his cabinet that anything and everything must be done to
control Libya.

Grasiani agreed to go to Libya if and only if Mosolini let him do the job without any consideration or respect for rules and laws in Italy
or in the World and Mosolini agreed immediately. Before coming to
Libya, Grasiani went to Morj, Switzerland where he enjoyed a vacation
in which he planned his murderous attack on the Libyans, all Libyans
according to Mosoliny’s Motto “If you are not with me, you are against
me !” which means the only way to control the country is by killing
almost half of its population and the Italians did cause the death of
half of Libya’s men, women, elderly and childern, directly through
public hangings and shootings and indirectly (hunger, illness and
horror) for the sake of one thing: showing the world that they have the
power to invade and capture colonies just like the other powers in the
world. Grasiani’s plan was: First to isolate Libya
completely and prevent any direct or indirect contact between the
Mojahideen and their neighbours who supply the Libyan Mojahideen with
weapons and information. Grasiani built a wired wall 300 Kilometers
long, 2 meters high and 3 meters wide from Bardiyat Slaiman port North Libya
to Al-Jagboub South East Libya. The second part of the plan was to
built concentration camps where thousands of Libyans must live under
complete control of the Italian army. Grasiany built concentration
camps in: Al-Aghaila, Al-Maghroun, Solouq and Al-Abiyar to name a few.
By the end of November 1929 all Libyans who live in tents in Al-Jabal
Al-Akdar, Mortaf-Aat Al-Thahir from Beneena North to Ash-Shlaithemiya
South, from Tawkera to the southern desert of Balt Abdel-Hafeeth and
all the members of any tribe that has one or more of its sons fighting
with Mojahideen, all those and more, thousands and thousands of Libyans
were forced to leave their land and live in one of the concentration
camps mentioned above.

Life in the camps was miserable and
thousands of Libyans died of hunger, illness and some of them were
hanged or shot because they believed to be helping the Mojahideen. In
1933, the Italian Army Health Department Chairman, Dr. Todesky wrote in
his book (Cerinaica today): “From May 1930 to September 1930 more than
80,000 Libyans were forced to leave their land and live in
concentration camps, they were taken 300 at a time watched by soldiers
to make sure that the Libyans go directly to the concentration camps. ”
Dr. Todesky continued ” By the end of 1930 all Libyans who live in
tents were forced to go and live in the camps. 55% of the Libyans died
in the camps.” The Libyan historian Mahmoud Ali At-Taeb said in an
interview with the Libyan magazine Ash-Shoura (October 1979) that in
November 1930 there were at least seventeen funerals a day in the camps
due to hunger, illness and depression.

When some world newspapers talked about the inhumane life in the concentration camps in Libya,
the Italian army started giving the Libyans some dry parley (22
Kilo-grams per person per month !) which was too little to late.
Outside the camps, in the mountains, the Mojahideen continued to fight
the Italian occupation, but by the year 1931 the Mojahideen were out of
food, out of information and out of ammunitions. The leader of the
Mojahideen, Omar Al-Moktar, was ill couple of times and many of his
comrades asked him to retire and leave the country, he was 80 years
old. But he refused and kept fighting and he deserved a name given to
him as “The Lion of the Desert.” In September 16, 1931 the Italians
hanged Omar Al-Moktar in the city of Solouq
and they forced the Libyans to watch their hero been hanged. No
consideration to Omar Al-Moktar’s old age, no consideration to
international law and no consideration to world war treaties. But,
remember that the Italians caused the death of half of Libya’s
population and killing Omar Al-Moktar to the Italians was ending the
Libyan resistance which to them means finally taking control of the
country after 20 years of struggle. Libya was under the Italian occupation till 1943 when Italy was defeated in World War II and Libya became under the Allies Armies occupation till December 24, 1951 when Libya achieved its independance after years and years of occupation.

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